You are currently viewing Analysis of Rice Xylem for Responses of Organic Nitrogen Resources

Analysis of Rice Xylem for Responses of Organic Nitrogen Resources

  • Post comments:0 Comments


Xylem has important role in plant nutrient transportation system. Xylem studies in rice have showed great impact in tolerance mechanism of rice plant in organic nitrogen uptake.  Also compared to other plants, rice have showed greater biomass accumulation with organic N sources  than N-depleted or no N-applied conditions. Therefore current study will investigate the roles of xylem in shoot biomass accumulation with organic nitrogen sources in rice plants.

Keywords:  xylem saqc, rice,  soil protein, cultivation media

Back ground

xylem is key factor in vascular plant transportation system.The transporting direction in xylem and phloem are different due to sink and source theory and requirements of each growth stage of plants. Therefore, analysis function of xylem in plant nutrient transportation is essential  in understanding difference in biomass accumulation of plant species under stressed condition especially nitrogen (N) depleted condition.

Rice as one of the main stable plant in Asia, accumulation of biomass is important factor which affect heading and other grail yields at later stage. And as one of the important factor in application of N have raised great attention for economic paid off to the farmers,related N gas emission as environmental hazard and retention of soils carbon as long term fertilities of soils.

Fig1. transportation of water in phloem and other nutrients in the xylems

Recent studies about  xylem such as  xylem saqc analysis, metabolite analysis and xylem structure analysis have showed difference among plant species. The xylem analysis have been conducted by many researchers for nitrogen responses also reported differences in  utilization of different soil nutrient through xylem. A study showed difference in xylem with the different N contains soils for tree species.

 As non-legume plant, rice uptake nitrogen from the soil. The source of nitrogen component and uptake and assimilation have been identified by many scholars and have been shown in the figure 2. and figure 3. 

Fig 2. uptake of ammonium by rice roots
Fig3. assimilation of nitrate by plants

On the other hand, as one of the main resources, the uptake and assimilation mechanism of peptide and proteins have not been identified yet. although these sources have been reported as important source of N for plant species.   Therefore, in this research, I want to elucidate such mechanism.

Problems and hypothesis


There is a genotypic difference in uptaking nitrogen from the soils among rice varieties.

Materials and Methods

Xylem saqc analysis for different rice varieties with different organic particles.

Table 1. material for rice plant and protein resource to be used in this research

rice genotypesxylem saqc analysis with addition of glutamine to cultivating media as N sources/addition of nitrate/addition of amino acidssoil proteins such as  / addition of phenol
Nano Bokura     
Toyo Hamachi     

Expected results

Genotypic difference may appear  in rice for responses of different organic sources.

Therefore further research is planned for the interspecific difference in rice for such characteristics. 

Impact of the research

1. Rice uptake of soil protein have been rarely studies, therefore can provide phenotypic tools for breeders to cultivate organic nitrogen -high affinient rice cultivar.

2. The cultivation media including proteins and amino acids may degrade easily, therefore improvements for such cultivation media can be good research pack for others for conducting similar research. 

3. This is a novel research after founding of the first QTL for organic Nitrogen utilization responses of rice, therefore provide reference in predicting the function of the  QTL


1. Okamoto, Miwa, and Kensuke Okada. “Differential responses of growth and nitrogen uptake to organic nitrogen in four gramineous crops.” Journal of experimental botany 55.402 (2004): 1577-1585.

2. Okamoto, Miwa, et al. “Growth responses of cereal crops to organic nitrogen in the field.” Soil science and plant nutrition 49.3 (2003): 445-452.

3. Pilbeam, David J. “The utilization of nitrogen by plants: A whole plant perspective.” Annual Plant Reviews online (2018): 305-351.

4. Liu, Xiaosong, et al. “Comparative analysis of metabolites profile in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) affected by different concentrations of gly and nitrate.” Scientia horticulturae 204 (2016): 8-15.

5. Dion, Pierre-Paul, et al. “Organic nitrogen uptake and assimilation in Cucumis sativus using position-specific labeling and compound-specific isotope analysis.” Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018).

6. 葛体达 [1, et al. 无机氮和氨基酸态氮处理对番茄幼苗木质部和韧皮部汁液中矿质养分的影响. Diss. 2009.

7. 王小丽, et al. 小白菜硝态氮, 氨基酸态氮的吸收动力学差异. Diss. 2012

8. Secchi, Francesca, Chiara Pagliarani, and Maciej A. Zwieniecki. “The functional role of xylem parenchyma cells and aquaporins during recovery from severe water stress.” Plant, cell & environment 40.6 (2017): 858-871.

9. Marco Borghetti, Tiziana Gentilesca, Stefano Leonardi, Twan van Noije, Angelo Rita, Maurizio Mencuccini, Long-term temporal relationships between environmental conditions and xylem functional traits: a meta-analysis across a range of woody species along climatic and nitrogen deposition gradients, Tree Physiology, Volume 37, Issue 1, January 2017, Pages 4–17,

10.Tabuchi, Mayumi, Tomomi Abiko, and Tomoyuki Yamaya. “Assimilation of ammonium ions and reutilization of nitrogen in rice (Oryza sativa L.).” Journal of experimental botany 58.9 (2007): 2319-2327.

11.Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat, et al. “Plants can use protein as a nitrogen source without assistance from other organisms.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105.11 (2008): 4524-4529.

12.Tabuchi, Mayumi, Tomomi Abiko, and Tomoyuki Yamaya. “Assimilation of ammonium ions and reutilization of nitrogen in rice (Oryza sativa L.).” Journal of experimental botany 58.9 (2007): 2319-2327.

13.Carlsson, Johanna, et al. “Nitrogen uptake and assimilation in proliferating embryogenic cultures of Norway spruce—Investigating the specific role of glutamine.” PloS one 12.8 (2017): e0181785.

Leave a Reply